James Bamford The Shadow Factory

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James Bamford The Shadow Factory

Сообщение Моргенштерн » 30 сен 2013 13:50

James Bamford

THE SHADOW FACTORY

The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America



DOUBLEDAY
New York London Toronto Sydney Auckland

Copyright © 2008 by James Bamford


About the Author

V. James Bamford (born September 15, 1946) is an American bestselling author and journalist noted for his writing about United States intelligence agencies, especially the National Security Agency (NSA). Bamford has taught at the University of California, Berkeley, as a distinguished visiting professor and has written for The New York Times Magazine, The Atlantic, Harper's, and many other publications. In 2006, he won the National Magazine Award for Reporting for his piece "The Man Who Sold The War," published in Rolling Stone.

Bamford was born on September 15, 1946 and raised in Natick, Massachusetts. During the Vietnam War, he spent three years in the United States Navy as an intelligence analyst, and used the GI Bill to earn his law degree from Suffolk University Law School in Boston, Massachusetts. Rather than practice law, he entered the field of journalism, becoming an expert on the highly secretive National Security Agency. His first book, The Puzzle Palace (1982), was the first book published about the National Security Agency. It was researched through the extensive use of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

As a super-secret agency, NSA was concerned about its unveiling to the world; accordingly, the government reclassified certain documents in an effort to stop publication.

The publication of his book resulted in threats of prosecution, when the Department of Justice claimed that he was holding classified documents. His counter argument was that the documents had been given to him under the Attorney General of Jimmy Carter, and were declassified when he got them; by an Executive Order in place at the time, documents declassified could not be "reclassified". President Ronald Reagan then made a new Executive Order to make it possible to reclassify documents, but that could not be used against Bamford because of ex post facto law.
He next published Body of Secrets, also about the NSA, in 2001, and A Pretext for War (2004). His 2008 book, The Shadow Factory, became a New York Times best-seller and was named by The Washington Post as one of "The Best Books of 2008." It was the third book in his NSA trilogy and focused on the NSA involvement in the 9/11 investigations and intelligence failures. The NOVA's The Spy Factory was based on this book.

Bamford now lectures nationally in the United States and was a distinguished visiting professor at the University of California, Berkeley. He also spent nearly a decade as the Washington investigative producer for ABC's World News Tonight. In 2006, he received the National Magazine Award for Reporting, the top prize in magazine writing. Most recently, he published his new book The Shadow Factory, once again about the NSA.

Bamford was also a consultant for the defense of NSA whistle blower Thomas Andrews Drake. He lives in Washington, D.C., and in London.


Books by James Bamford

Bamford, James (1982). The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-14-006748-5.
Bamford, James (2001). The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America's Most Secret Intelligence Organization. Viking Pr. ISBN 0-14-023116-1.
Bamford, James (April 30, 2002). Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency. Anchor. ISBN 0-385-49908-6.
Bamford, James (May 10, 2005). A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the Abuse of America's Intelligence Agencies. Anchor. ISBN 1-4000-3034-X.
Bamford, James (September 16, 2008). The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-52132-4.




JAMES BAMFORD

THE SHADOW FACTORY
THE ULTRA-SECRET NSA FROM 9/11 TO THE EAVESDROPPING ON AMERICA


To Mary Ann And to my father, Vincent In memory of my mother, Katherine And to Tom, Paula, and Christina I'm very grateful for their constant support and encouragement.

Contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction

BOOK ONE: ATTACK
Sanaa
Intercept
San Diego
Deaf
Mesa
Thinthread
Totowa
Chatter
Cambrils
Warning
Fort Lee
Discovery
Laurel
Surprise
Pentagon

BOOK TWO: TARGETS
Opportunity
Hunters
FISA
Mission
Highlander
Assassination
War

BOOK THREE: COOPERATION
Shamrock
Qwest
Cables
Splitter
Industry
Transit
Partners
Wiretappers
Technotyranny
Miners

BOOK FOUR: DISCOVERY
Fractures
Emergency
Exposure
Extremis
Immunity

BOOK FIVE: FUTURE
Exabytes
Trailblazer
Turbulence
Abyss



Acknowledgments

Whenever I write about the NSA, it is like trying to reassemble a puzzle after the pieces have been scrambled. Thus, I am deeply grateful to the many courageous people who helped me fit the pieces together. Although they must be unnamed, they will not go unheard or unthanked.
I am also very grateful to Doubleday's editor-in-chief, Bill Thomas, for suggesting this book and for his help, encouragement, and friendship. Many thanks also to my editor, Kris Puopolo, who helped me put the pieces of the puzzle in their proper places and was always full of good ideas and support. And thanks to Stephanie Bowen for her excellent eye and help with managing the manuscript and for keeping me on schedule. I also greatly appreciate the years of excellent advice and direction provided by Kris Dahl, my agent at International Creative Management.


Introduction


In northern Georgia near the South Carolina border, a few miles from Leburda's Grits N' Gravy and the Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, one of the most secret facilities in the world is undergoing a major expansion. When completed, it will likely be the largest eavesdropping facility ever created, employing more than four thousand civilian and military "voice interceptors" and other specialists. Run by the ultra-secret National Security Agency, it is where the agency eavesdrops on the Middle East and North Africa, thousands of miles away. Inside, behind barbed-wire fences, heavily armed guards, and cipher-locked doors, earphone-clad men and women secretly listen in as al-Qaeda members chat on cell phones along the Afghan border, and to insurgents planning attacks in Iraq. They also target and record American citizens in that region, including businesspeople, journalists, and Red Cross workers, as they engage in intimate conversations with their spouses back home and discuss confidential matters and business deals. "A lot of time you could tell they were calling their families," said one of the NSA intercept operators who listened in on the Americans, "incredibly intimate, personal conversations . . . Basically all rules were thrown out the window, and they would use any excuse to justify a waiver to spy on Americans."
By 2008, the NSA had become the largest, most costly, and most technologically sophisticated spy organization the world has ever known. It had also become the most intrusive, secretly filtering millions of phone calls and e-mails an hour—international and domestic—through equipment programmed to watch and listen for hundreds of thousands of names and phone numbers. To sift through it all, the agency has the world's largest collection of data-eating supercomputers. Its newest, code-named "Black Widow," is a colossal $17.5 million Cray computer made up of sixteen tall cabinets crammed with thousands of processors. It is able to achieve speeds of hundreds of teraflops—hundreds of trillions of operations a second—and the NSA predicts that it will soon break the petaflop barrier, plowing through phone calls, e-mails, and other data at more than a quadrillion operations a second.
In its manic drive for information, the agency requires a city-sized headquarters complex that consumes so much energy that it is now in real danger of running out of power and going dark. It has already run out of space to store all of its data—data in which it is now drowning, according to the Congressional Research Service. "Whereas some observers once predicted that the NSA was in danger of becoming proverbially deaf due to the spreading use of encrypted communications," the report said, "it appears that NSA may now be at greater risk of being 'drowned' in information." The report added, "Some intelligence data sources grow at a rate of four petabytes per month now . . . and the rate of growth is increasing." In a year at that rate, the NSA's massive database would hold at least 48 petabytes, the equivalent of nearly one billion four-door filing cabinets full of documents. It would also be equal to about twenty-four trillion pages of text.
Among the few who know just how much data flows into the NSA is Eric C. Haseltine. The former head of Disney's "Imagineering" labs, Haseltine was appointed as the agency's associate director for research in 2002. Two years later he noted that even the NSA's enormous computer power has trouble keeping up with the flow. "We in the NSA are encountering problems with the flood of information that people [in the outside world] won't see for a generation or two," he said. "We've been into the future and we've seen the problems" of a "tidal wave" of data. He added, "We can either be drowned by it or we can get on our surf- board and surf it and let it propel us. And, of course, that's what we're trying to do."
If indeed the data flowing into the NSA is what the outside world will see two to four decades from now, the amount of information the agency is ingesting is truly astronomical. In fact, it may be rapidly moving from measuring the data by the petabyte to measuring it by the exabyte, which is 1,000 petabytes. By way of perspective, 200 petabytes is the equivalent of all printed material. Five exabytes (5,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes), on the other hand, represents enough information to fill 37,000 new Li- braries of Congress and more than all the words ever printed. This is the annual equivalent of a thirty-foot stack of books for every man, woman, and child on the planet.
No longer able to store all the intercepted phone calls and e-mail in its secret city, the agency has now built a new data warehouse in San Antonio, Texas. Costing, with renovations, upwards of $130 million, the 470,000-square-foot facility will be almost the size of the Alamodome. Considering how much data can now be squeezed onto a small flash drive, the new NSA building may eventually be able to hold all the information in the world.
The principal end product of all that data and all that processing is a list of names—the watch list—of people, both American and foreign, thought to pose a danger to the country. Once containing just twenty names, today it is made up of an astonishing half a million—and it grows rapidly every day. Most on the list are neither terrorists nor a danger to the country, and many arc there simply by mistake. Some of the many innocent people on the list may discover their situation when they are tossed off a plane, as happened numerous times to Massachusetts senator Ted Kennedy. Others, however, may never know. Instead, their application for a Small Business Administration loan may be turned down without their being given a reason; or the application of a bright son or daughter for admittance into one of the military academies may be rejected without explanation; or, because the names are shared with foreign governments, a person could be turned away after landing in London for a vacation or business trip—without being told why.
Known as the Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment, or TIDE, it is the mother of all watch lists—the watch list from which all others, in- cluding the Do Not Fly list, are derived. Nevertheless, it sits ingloriously on a dated and inexpensive Dell laptop in the basement of the National Counterterrorism Center, maintained by the CIA.
In early September 2001 there was no TIDE, and the NSA was a little- noticed agency attempting to downsize by a third and searching for a mission. A few days later it found its new mission—a mission that began with a phone call intercepted from a house on a dusty backstreet in Yemen.
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Re: James Bamford The Shadow Factory

Сообщение Моргенштерн » 30 сен 2013 13:55

Моргенштерн
 
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Re: James Bamford The Shadow Factory

Сообщение Agentura » 27 окт 2013 23:22

Отличная книжка!
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Re: James Bamford The Shadow Factory

Сообщение Моргенштерн » 28 окт 2013 10:42

Еще бы Олдрича кто отсканил - и Сыркова можно не покупать.
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Re: James Bamford The Shadow Factory

Сообщение Моргенштерн » 28 окт 2013 14:40

В Библиотеке на сайте Игоря Ландера Бэмфорд тоже уже есть.
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